A stun gun is a non-lethal self-defense weapon which uses high voltage to disarm an attacker. Touching an individual with the spikes of this device rapidly immobilizes the assailant. However, due to the very low amperage, no fatal or permanent damages are caused. The stun guns are engineered with the focus on the nervous system. It injects its energy into the body muscles at a very high frequency. This makes the muscles work very fast, but inefficiently. This swifter operation cycle exhausts blood glucose by converting it into lactic acid within just very few seconds. The energy loss results in difficulty for the body to function or move. In the meantime, the neurological impulses which travel throughout the whole body to coordinate the muscle movement are interfered with.
This electroshock weapon uses short-lived high-voltage or low-current power discharge to slow down the muscle-triggering processes of the body. These devices are modifications of the cattle prods that have been in use for over 100 years. The receiver of the pongs is immobilized through two metal checks connected through wires to the device. The receiver feels extreme pain, and can be temporarily immobilized during the time when the electric current is being applied. The essential to the working mechanisms of cattle prods and stun guns is enough amperage to make the device to stun. Without the amperage, the devices cannot stun, and the extent to which they are capable of stunning depends on their efficient use of the amperage. It is often reported that applying these devices to sensitive parts of the body is terribly painful.
Internal circuits of the stun guns are generally simple, working on the principle of an oscillator, resonant circuit and a diode-capacitor voltage multiplier or step-up transformer to accomplish a high-voltage alternating discharge or a continuous (D.C) direct-current discharge. It can be powered by at least one or more batteries depending on and model. The quantity of amperage produced depends on the capabilities required. Output voltage is projected to be within the range of 105 V up to 6.0 KV. Current magnitude output is projected to be within the range of 105 to 500.00 mA; impulse time is projected to be within the limits of 10 to 100 µs; the frequency of the impulse is projected to be within the range of 2.0 to 40.0 Hz; electrical charge given out is projected to be within the range of 16 to 500 µC; energy given out is projected to be within the limits of 0.9 to 10 J. The current output upon contact with the target normally depend on various variables such as skin type, target’s resistance, moisture, clothing, bodily salinity, the internal circuitry of electroshock weapon, battery conditions and discharge waveform.
The primary idea on which stun gun works is to interfere with the communication system of the body. By generating a low-amperage and high-voltage electrical charge, it induces a lot of pressure, but with little intensity to the attacker. When one presses the gun against his or her attacker and pulls the trigger, charge flow through the attacker’s body. Considering its fairly high voltage, the charge passes through the heavy clothing and onto the skin. This does a lot of confusion to the information in the attacker’s nervous system. A typical stun gun has a relatively simple design. It is approximately the size of a pocket flashlight, and operates on the ordinary 9-volt batteries. The battery inputs electric charge to a circuit comprising of various electrical components. The circuitry includes multiple transformers, components that boost the voltage in the circuit, typically to between 20,000 and 150,000 volts, and reduce the amperage. It also includes an oscillator, a component that fluctuates current to produce a specific pulse pattern of electricity. This current charges a capacitor. The capacitor builds up a charge and releases it to the electrodes, the “business end” of the circuit.
In the present days, many stun-gun models possess two pairs of electrodes- an external pair and an internal pair. The external pair of electrodes is spaced a considerable distance apart so that the current can only flow when one inserts an outside conductor. When the current fails to flow across the outer electrodes, it will flow to the inner electrode pair. These are called test electrodes. These electrodes are placed close enough such that they can allow electric current to leap between them. As the current moves, it ionizes the particles of air in the gap. This produces crackling noise and visible spark. This display will always alert your attacker that you are armed.
One of the newest stun gun devices operates on liquid. It is called liquid stun gun. These most current devices work on the same way principle as a Taser gun except that they use liquid to conduct electricity instead of extended wires. This gun is connected to a reservoir of highly conductive fluid, primarily a mixture of salt, water, and numerous other conductive liquids. When one pulls the trigger, electrical charge flows from the stun gun, through the conductive liquid stream, to the assailant. Deaths resulting from the use of stun guns and Taser by police and civilians are generally rare. Research indicates that when handled and used in the right way, the stun gun are generally safe and minimizes injuries to both civilians and the police officers. But when they are used excessively, the risk of permanent injury or even death can increase considerably, according to product manufacturers’ warnings and police experts.
Experts also indicate that stun gun and other high-voltage stun devices are capable of causing cardiac arrhythmia in the vulnerable subjects, and can possibly lead to heart attack and death in a short time span by ventricular fibrillation. The ventricular fibrillation causes cardiac arrest, and if not taken care of instantly, may lead to sudden death. An elevated risk of death is proportional to the duration of high voltage exposed by the recipient. Other than the very rare cases of permanent injuries, stun guns have reduced remarkably the attacks that civilians are vulnerable to.